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The Adopt/Adapt/Expand/Respond (AAER) framework is a commonly used approach in market systems development (MSD) and is used to manage and measure changes in market systems. The framework describes four components that need to be assessed; (i) Adopt is where project beneficiaries or actors take up change with support from the programme; (ii) Adapt is where they further invest in this change, without support from the programme; (iii) Expand emphasizes the Adopt to the function level, where the focus is on how much of the expected behavior change is happening and, (iv) Respond comprises any other behavior
changes that supports the desired intervention change. At the system level the focus is on behavior changes by actors in other functions but only those that produce change resources that support adoption.
EAMDA employs the AAER framework in conjunction with the systems thinking process iceberg to essentially define change indicators  and result measurement parameters.

AAER Framework

As the clearest, most basic representation of how systemic change happens, EAMDA uses the AAER framework to mostly,describe the key stages in a process by which change happens in systems.

Iceberg Model in systems thinking

The classical system thinking model can be represented as an iceberg, consisting of the following 4 levels:

  • Events – What happened?

  • Trends – What trends are noticeable over time?

  • Underlying structures – What has influenced these trends?

  • Mental Models – What are people assumptions about the system?